https://www.wikipedia.org/ has been credited with changing attitudes to race by opening up African-American culture to white audiences; but at the same time, rock has been accused of appropriating and exploiting that culture. While rock music has absorbed many influences and introduced Western audiences to different musical traditions, the global spread of rock music has been interpreted as a form of cultural imperialism. Rock music inherited the folk tradition of protest song, making political statements on subjects such as war, religion, poverty, civil rights, justice and the environment.

Instrumental rock was particularly significant in continental Europe, allowing bands like Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Can, and Faust to circumvent the language barrier. Their synthesiser-heavy “krautrock”, along with the work of Brian Eno , would be a major influence on subsequent electronic rock. With the advent of punk rock and technological changes in the late 1970s, progressive rock was increasingly dismissed as pretentious and overblown. Many bands broke up, but some, including Genesis, ELP, Yes, and Pink Floyd, regularly scored top ten albums with successful accompanying worldwide tours. Some bands which emerged in the aftermath of punk, such as Siouxsie and the Banshees, Ultravox, and Simple Minds, showed the influence of progressive rock, as well as their more usually recognized punk influences.

From the psychedelic https://www.anatoliabrookline.com/ and the Canterbury scenes came Soft Machine, who, it has been suggested, produced one of the artistically successfully fusions of the two genres. Perhaps the most critically acclaimed fusion came from the jazz side of the equation, with Miles Davis, particularly influenced by the work of Hendrix, incorporating rock instrumentation into his sound for the album Bitches Brew . It was a major influence on subsequent rock-influenced jazz artists, including Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea and Weather Report. The genre began to fade in the late 1970s, as a mellower form of fusion began to take its audience, but acts like Steely Dan, Frank Zappa and Joni Mitchell recorded significant jazz-influenced albums in this period, and it has continued to be a major influence on rock music. From the 1990s, alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop, and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, and rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock’s history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals in the 2000s.

Despite rock’s decline in mainstream popularity, some rock bands have continued to achieve mainstream success in the 2010s and 2020s, including Tool, Fall Out Boy, Greta Van Fleet, Panic! In the 2000s, as computer technology became more accessible and music software advanced, it became possible to create high quality music using little more than a single laptop computer. This resulted in a massive increase in the amount of home-produced electronic music available to the general public via the expanding internet, and new forms of performance such as laptronica and live coding.

Detroit rapper Esham became known for his “acid rap” style, which fused rapping with a sound that was often based in rock and heavy metal. Rappers who sampled rock songs included Ice-T, the Fat Boys, LL Cool J, Public Enemy and Whodini. The mixing of thrash metal and rap was pioneered by Anthrax on their 1987 comedy-influenced single “I’m the Man”. Glam rock emerged from the English psychedelic and art rock scenes of the late 1960s and can be seen as both an extension of and reaction against those trends. Musically diverse, varying between the simple rock and roll revivalism of figures like Alvin Stardust to the complex art rock of Roxy Music, and can be seen as much as a fashion as a musical subgenre.

The 2010s saw a slow decline in rock music’s mainstream popularity and cultural relevancy, with hip-hop surpassing it as the most popular genre in the United States. “The rebellion of rock music was largely a male rebellion; the women – often, in the 1950s and ’60s, girls in their teens – in rock usually sang songs as personæ utterly dependent on their macho boyfriends …”. Philip Auslander says that “Although there were many women in rock by the late 1960s, most performed only as singers, a traditionally feminine position in popular music”. Though some women played instruments in American all-female garage rock bands, none of these bands achieved more than regional success.

Four years later, Bill Haley’s “Rock Around the Clock” became the first rock and roll song to top Billboard magazine’s main sales and airplay charts, and opened the door worldwide for this new wave of popular culture. Dictionary definitions of rock are problematic, not least because the term has different resonance in its British and American usages . There is basic agreement that rock “is a form of music with a strong beat,” but it is difficult to be much more explicit.